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Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.

See also CHE's compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.

Parkinson's disease / movement disorders

Causes    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

manganese

MPTP

Good Evidence

carbon disulfide

carbon monoxide

methanol

paraquat

pesticides

Limited Evidence

aluminum

dieldrin

diquat

glyphosate

iron

lead

mancozeb

maneb

n-Hexane

organochlorine pesticides

organophosphates

PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), not otherwise specified

pesticides

pyrethins / pyrethroids

rotenone

Notes

Parkinsonism symptoms include tremor, rigidity, gait disturbances, bradykinesia, and impairment of postural reflexes. Pesticide exposures as defined by occupational exposure (vineyard worker, agricultural worker, farmer, animal breeder, pesticide applicator) or inferred by rural residences or well water as source of drinking water has been associated with PD. Several population based case-control studies have identified a 3-4 fold increased likelihood of PD with past herbicide or insecticide exposure. Paraquat has a structure similar to MPTP. A possible role of gene-pesticide interactions in the etiology of PD has been postulated with reports of associations between glutathione transferase polymorphisms, NAT-2 slow acetylators, and slow 4-hydroxylation of debrisoquine (CYP 2D6 29B+) and PD. These genetic variants may increase risk from environmental exposure by slowing detoxification of exogenous compounds.