Toxicant and Disease Database
The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.
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Neural tube defects / CNS malformations*
Causes Grouped by strength of evidence
*Includes eye malformations (congenital cataracts), anencephaly, and hydrocephaly. Trihalomethanes are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection, usually with chlorine. Carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene as drinking water contaminants. Maternal pesticide exposure in agricultural workers and in the home have been associated with NTD. Individual pesticide exposure was not identified in these studies.