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Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.

See also CHE's compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.

Neural tube defects / CNS malformations*

Causes    Grouped by strength of evidence

Good Evidence

arsenic

chlorination byproducts

chlorophenols

mercury

trihalomethanes

Limited Evidence

2,4-D

2,4,5-T

Agent Orange

benomyl

benzene

cadmium

chlordecone

chloroform

chlorophenols

copper

ethylene glycol ethers

ethylene thiourea (ETU)

hydrogen cyanide

manganese

pesticides

solvents

tobacco smoke

toluene

trichloroethylene (TCE)

vinyl chloride

vinylidene chloride

Notes

*Includes eye malformations (congenital cataracts), anencephaly, and hydrocephaly. Trihalomethanes are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection, usually with chlorine. Carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene as drinking water contaminants. Maternal pesticide exposure in agricultural workers and in the home have been associated with NTD. Individual pesticide exposure was not identified in these studies.