Toxicant and Disease Database
The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.
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Causes Grouped by strength of evidence
tobacco smoke (active smoking)
PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), not otherwise specified
+ - Group 1 human carcinogen, # - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) Occupational exposure to vehicular exhaust was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in males. Cigarette smoke, especially second-hand smoke, contains high levels of PAHs. Eleven constituents of cigarette smoke have been found to cause mammary gland carcinogens in animals. These chemicals include benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, 2-toluidine, 4-aminobiphenyl,2-amino-3-methylimidazoquinoline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazopyridine, butadiene, isoprene, nitromethane, ethylene oxide, and benzene. % - secondhand smoke exposure in pre-menopausal women has been associated with breast cancer, but not in post-menopausal women. *-Genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A1, may predispose some women to breast ca after PCB exposure. Women with a genetic variant in the NAT enzyme system (slow acetylators) have a 70% increased risk of breast cancer if they smoke. In contrast, the opposite genetic variant, or fast acetylators, have a doubling of breast cancer risk from exposure to second hand smoke.