Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

See also our compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact us through our Contact form.

tobacco smoke (active smoking)

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

Asthma - irritant

Bladder cancer

Breast cancer

Bronchitis - chronic

Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)

Cervical cancer

COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis

Esophageal cancer

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Immune suppression

Laryngeal cancer

Lung cancer

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Nasopharyngeal / sino-nasal cancer

Pancreatic cancer

Preterm delivery

Reduced fertility - female (infertility and subfertility)

Renal (kidney) cancer

Stomach cancer

Good Evidence

Abnormal sperm (morphology, motility, and sperm count)

Adult-onset leukemias

Early onset menopause

Hormonal changes (levels of circulating sex hormones - FSH/LH, Inhibin, and/or estrogens, progesterones, androgens, prolactin)

Myelodysplastic syndrome (pre-leukemia)


Reduced fertility - male (infertility and subfertility)

Limited Evidence

Hepatocellular cancer (liver cancer)


Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(suppl 1):25-42.

Cohen SM, Shirai T, Steineck G. Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 2000; 205:105-115.

DeBruin LS, Josephy PD. Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 Feb;110 Suppl 1:119-28.

Greenlee AR, Arbuckle TE, Chyou PH. Risk factors for female infertility in an agricultural region. Epidemiology. 2003; 14(4):429-436.

Hruska KS, Furth PA, Seifer DB, Sharara FI, Flaws JA. Environmental factors in infertility. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2000 Dec;43(4):821-9.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Li D. Molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Journal. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):259-65.

Loffredo CA. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations: prevalence and risk factors. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 2000 Winter;97(4):319-25.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form