Toxicant and Disease Database
The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.
For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.
tobacco smoke (active smoking)
Diseases linked to this toxicant Grouped by strength of evidence
Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(suppl 1):25-42.
Cohen SM, Shirai T, Steineck G. Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 2000; 205:105-115.
DeBruin LS, Josephy PD. Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 Feb;110 Suppl 1:119-28.
Greenlee AR, Arbuckle TE, Chyou PH. Risk factors for female infertility in an agricultural region. Epidemiology. 2003; 14(4):429-436.
Hruska KS, Furth PA, Seifer DB, Sharara FI, Flaws JA. Environmental factors in infertility. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2000 Dec;43(4):821-9.
Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.
LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.
Li D. Molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer. Cancer Journal. 2001 Jul-Aug;7(4):259-65.
Loffredo CA. Epidemiology of cardiovascular malformations: prevalence and risk factors. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 2000 Winter;97(4):319-25.
Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.
NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form