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Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.

See also CHE's compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.

chlorination byproducts

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Good Evidence

Bladder cancer

Colorectal cancer

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Low birth weight / small for gestational age / intra-uterine growth retardation

Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Neural tube defects / CNS malformations

Stomach cancer

Limited Evidence

Cardiac congenital malformations

Oral clefts (cleft lip and palate)

References

Bove F, Shim Y, Zeitz P. Drinking water contamination and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 Feb;110(1):61-74.

Cohen SM, Shirai T, Steineck G. Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 2000; 205:105-115.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form