Toxicant and Disease Database
The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.
See also our compilation of other Databases and Resources
For questions or comments about the database, please contact us through our Contact form.
estrogens / DES
Diseases linked to this toxicant Grouped by strength of evidence
Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(suppl 1):25-42.
D'Cruz D. Autoimmune diseases associated with drugs, chemicals and environmental factors. Toxicology Letters. 2000 Mar 15;112-113:421-32.
DeBruin LS, Josephy PD. Perspectives on the chemical etiology of breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002 Feb;110 Suppl 1:119-28.
Dooley MA, Hogan SL. Environmental epidemiology and risk factors for autoimmune disease. Current Opinions in Rheumatology. 2003 Mar;15(2):99-103.
Ho SM, Tang WY et al. Developmental exposure to estradiol and bisphenol A increases susceptibility to prostate carcinogenesis and epigenetically regulates phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4. Cancer Research. 2006 Jun 1;66(11):5624-32.
Holladay SD. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Oct;107 Suppl 5:687-91.
Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.
LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.
Leikin JB, Davis A et al. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part IV. Occupational liver disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):296-310.
Massaad C, Entezami F, Massade L, Benahmed M, Olivennes F, Barouki R, Hamamah S. How can chemical compounds alter human fertility? European Journal of Obstettics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. 2002 Jan 10;100(2):127-37.
Maves MD. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Oct;107 Suppl 5:743-8.
Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.
NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form