Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

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CAS number: 118-74-1

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

Hyperkeratosis / hyperpigmentation

Porphyria (toxic)

Good Evidence

Acute hepatocellular injury (hepatitis)s

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Limited Evidence

Autoimmune antibodies (positive ANA, anti-DNA, RF, etc.)

Brain cancer - adult

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Genito-urinary malformations (includes male and female)

Hepatocellular cancer (liver cancer)


Immune suppression

Reduced fertility - female (infertility and subfertility)

Reduced fertility - male (infertility and subfertility)

Soft tissue sarcomas

Testicular cancer

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid disorders - hypothyroidism


Cantor KP et al. Risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and prediagnostic serum organochlorines: beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane/heptachlor-related compounds, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Feb;111(2):179-83.

Denham M, Schell LM et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):e127-34.

Hardell L, van Bavel B et al. Increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes in mothers of men with testicular cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Jun;111(7):930-4.

Holladay SD. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Oct;107 Suppl 5:687-91.

Hosie S, Loff S, Witt K, Niessen K, Waag K. Is there a correlation between organochlorine compounds and undescended testes? European Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2000 Oct;10(5):304-9.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Leikin JB, Davis A et al. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part IV. Occupational liver disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):296-310.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

Soliman AS, Smith MA et al. Serum organochlorine pesticide levels in patients with colorectal cancer in Egypt. Archives of Environmental Health. 1997 Nov-Dec; 52(6):409-416.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form