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Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.

See also CHE's compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.

phthalates

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Good Evidence

Hormonal changes (levels of circulating sex hormones - FSH/LH, Inhibin, and/or estrogens, progesterones, androgens, prolactin)

Limited Evidence

Abnormal sperm (morphology, motility, and sperm count)

Asthma - allergen, sensitizer

Asthma - irritant

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Genito-urinary malformations (includes male and female)

Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Preterm delivery

Rhinitis - allergic

Testicular toxicity

References

Bornehag CG, Sundell J et al. The association between asthma and allergic symptoms in children and phthalates in house dust: a nested case-control study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004 Oct;112(14):1393-7.

Duty SM, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, Herrick RF, Christiani DC, Hauser R. Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiology. 2003 May;14(3):269-77.

Hauser R, Williams P, Altshul L, Calafat AM. Evidence of interaction between polychlorinated biphenyls and phthalates in relation to human sperm motility. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2005 Apr;113(4):425-30.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Main KM, Mortensen GK et al. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006 Feb;114(2):270-6.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form