Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

See also our compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact us through our Contact form.


CAS number: 1332-21-4

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence


Laryngeal cancer

Lung cancer


Ovarian cancer

Pleural disease (effusions, plaques, thickening)


Pulmonary fibrosis

Good Evidence

Autoimmune antibodies (positive ANA, anti-DNA, RF, etc.)

Immune suppression

Renal (kidney) cancer

Stomach cancer

Limited Evidence

Adult-onset leukemias

Bladder cancer

Colorectal cancer

Esophageal cancer

Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's)

Melanoma (skin cancer)

Multiple myeloma

Myelodysplastic syndrome (pre-leukemia)


Becker N, Berger J, Bolm-Audorff U. Asbestos exposure and malignant lymphomas -- a review of the epidemiological literature. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2001;74:459-469.

Browne K, Gee JB. Asbestos exposure and laryngeal cancer. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2000 Jun;44(4)239-250.

De Vuyst P, Camus P. The past and present of pneumoconioses. Current Opinions in Pulmonary Medicine. 2000 Mar;6(2):151-6.

Gottschall EB. Occupational and environmental thoracic malignancies. Journal of Thoracic Imaging. 2002 Jul; 17:189-197.

Holly EA, Aston DA, Ahn DK, Smith AH. Intraocular melanoma linked to occupations and chemical exposures. Epidemiology. 1996 Jan;7(1):55-61.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs. Accessed in 2010.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form