Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

See also our compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact us through our Contact form.

phenoxyacetic herbicides

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence


Good Evidence

Adult-onset leukemias

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Hodgkin's disease (lymphoma)

Lymphoma (non-Hodgkin's)

Multiple myeloma

Peripheral neuropathy

Porphyria (toxic)

Soft tissue sarcomas

Stomach cancer

Limited Evidence

Autoimmune antibodies (positive ANA, anti-DNA, RF, etc.)

Brain cancer - childhood

Breast cancer

Colorectal cancer

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Hepatocellular cancer (liver cancer)

Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Immune suppression

Low birth weight / small for gestational age / intra-uterine growth retardation

Lung cancer

Preterm delivery

Prostate cancer

Thyroid cancer


Arbuckle T, Lin Z, Mery LS. An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001 Aug;109(8):851-7.

Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(suppl 1):25-42.

Hardell L, Eriksson M, Nordstrom M. Exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia: pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies. Leukemia & Lymphoma. 2002 May;43(5):1043-9.

Hardell L, Lindström G, van Bavel B, Fredrikson M, Liljegren G. Some aspects of the etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1998 Apr;106(Suppl 2):679-681.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form