Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

See also our compilation of other Databases and Resources

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CAS number: 7440-38-2

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

Angiosarcoma (hepatic)


Bladder cancer

Contact dermatitis - irritant

Diabetes - Type II

Hearing loss

Hyperkeratosis / hyperpigmentation

Lung cancer

Peripheral neuropathy

Skin cancer (non-melanoma)

Skin ulceration

Good Evidence

Adult-onset leukemias

Alopecia (hair loss)

Anemia (including hemolytic)

Aplastic anemia

Bronchitis - chronic



Congenital malformations - general

Coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Hepatocellular cancer (liver cancer)

Hepatoportal sclerosis

Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Low birth weight / small for gestational age / intra-uterine growth retardation

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Nasal septal perforation

Neural tube defects / CNS malformations

Pneumonitis (hypersensitivity)

Raynaud's phenomenon

Renal (kidney) cancer

Skeletal malformations

Steatosis (fatty liver)

Limited Evidence

Acute tubular necrosis

Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span) / mental retardation / developmental delay

COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

Genito-urinary malformations (includes male and female)

Immune suppression

Metal fume fever

Myelodysplastic syndrome (pre-leukemia)

Neurosthenia (organic affective syndrome)

Uterine cancer


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Cohen SM, Shirai T, Steineck G. Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. Supplementum. 2000; 205:105-115.

Gottschall EB. Occupational and environmental thoracic malignancies. Journal of Thoracic Imaging. 2002 Jul; 17:189-197.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs. Accessed in 2010.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Leikin JB, Davis A et al. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part IV. Occupational liver disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):296-310.

Leikin JB, Davis A, Klodd DA, Thunder T, Kelafant GA, Paquette DL, Rothe MJ, Rubin R. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part V. Occupational cardiovascular disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):311-322.

Longnecker MP, Daniels JL. Environmental contaminants as etiologic factors for diabetes. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001 Dec;109 Suppl 6:871-6.

Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986 (California Proposition 65).

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form