Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and our methodology.

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CAS number: 7439-92-1

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

Abnormal sperm (morphology, motility, and sperm count)

Acute tubular necrosis

ADD/ADHD, hyperactivity

Anemia (including hemolytic)

Behavioral problems


Chronic renal disease

Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span) / mental retardation / developmental delay

Coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis

Decreased coordination / dysequilibrium


Hearing loss

Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Peripheral neuropathy

Psychiatric disturbances (disorientation, hallucinations, psychosis, delirium, paranoias, anxiety/depression, emotional lability, mood changes, euphoria)

Reduced fertility - male (infertility and subfertility)


Good Evidence

Altered time to sexual maturation (accelerated or delayed puberty)



Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)

Delayed growth

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)


Hormonal changes (levels of circulating sex hormones - FSH/LH, Inhibin, and/or estrogens, progesterones, androgens, prolactin)

Immune suppression

Low birth weight / small for gestational age / intra-uterine growth retardation

Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Nephrotic syndrome

Porphyria (toxic)

Preterm delivery

Reduced fertility - female (infertility and subfertility)

Limited Evidence

ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)


Bladder cancer

Brain cancer - adult


Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span) / mental retardation / developmental delay

Cranio-facial malformations

Erectile dysfunction

Lung cancer

Neurosthenia (organic affective syndrome)


Parkinson's disease / movement disorders

Renal (kidney) cancer

Stomach cancer

Thyroid disorders - hypothyroidism

Wilm's tumor


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Braun JM, Kahn RS, Froehlich T, Auinger P, Lanphear BP. Exposures to environmental toxicants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in US children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006 Dec;114(12):1904-9.

Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Apr;348(16):1517-1526.

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Cheng Y, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Aro A, Weiss ST, Hu H. Bone lead and blood lead levels in relation to baseline blood pressure and the prospective development of hypertension: the Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;153(2):164-71

Coon S, Stark A, Peterson E, Gloi A, Kortsha G, Pounds J, Chettle D, Gorell J. Whole-body lifetime occupational lead exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006 Dec;114(12):1872-6.

Denham M, Schell LM et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):e127-34.

Goyer RA. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract. The Medical Clinics of North America. 1990 Mar;74(2):377-89.

Holladay SD. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Oct;107 Suppl 5:687-91.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs. Accessed in 2010.

Kaerlev L, Teglbjaerg PS et al. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002 Jun;44(6):516-22.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Leikin JB, Davis A, Klodd DA, Thunder T, Kelafant GA, Paquette DL, Rothe MJ, Rubin R. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part V. Occupational cardiovascular disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):311-322.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form