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Toxicant and Disease Database

The CHE Toxicant and Disease Database is a searchable database that summarizes links between chemical contaminants and approximately 180 human diseases or conditions. Diseases and or toxicants can be viewed by utilizing the search options below. See a full description of the database and its limitations.

See also CHE's compilation of other Databases and Resources

For questions or comments about the database, please contact Nancy Hepp through our Contact form.

lead

CAS number: 7439-92-1

Diseases linked to this toxicant    Grouped by strength of evidence

Strong Evidence

Abnormal sperm (morphology, motility, and sperm count)

Acute tubular necrosis

ADD/ADHD, hyperactivity

Anemia (including hemolytic)

Behavioral problems

Cataracts

Chronic renal disease

Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span) / mental retardation / developmental delay

Coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis

Decreased coordination / dysequilibrium

Gout

Hearing loss

Hypertension (high blood pressure)

Peripheral neuropathy

Psychiatric disturbances (disorientation, hallucinations, psychosis, delirium, paranoias, anxiety/depression, emotional lability, mood changes, euphoria)

Reduced fertility - male (infertility and subfertility)

Seizures

Good Evidence

Altered time to sexual maturation (accelerated or delayed puberty)

Arrhythmias

Cardiomyopathy

Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)

Delayed growth

Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Glomerulonephritis

Hormonal changes (levels of circulating sex hormones - FSH/LH, Inhibin, and/or estrogens, progesterones, androgens, prolactin)

Immune suppression

Low birth weight / small for gestational age / intra-uterine growth retardation

Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Nephrotic syndrome

Porphyria (toxic)

Preterm delivery

Reduced fertility - female (infertility and subfertility)

Limited Evidence

ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)

Alzheimer's

Bladder cancer

Brain cancer - adult

Carcinoid

Cognitive impairment (includes impaired learning, impaired memory, and decreased attention span) / mental retardation / developmental delay

Cranio-facial malformations

Erectile dysfunction

Lung cancer

Neurosthenia (organic affective syndrome)

Osteoporosis

Parkinson's disease / movement disorders

Renal (kidney) cancer

Stomach cancer

Thyroid disorders - hypothyroidism

Wilm's tumor

References

Bonde JP, Joffe M et al. Sperm count and chromatin structure in men exposed to inorganic lead: lowest adverse effect levels. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. 2002 Apr;59(4):234-42.

Braun JM, Kahn RS, Froehlich T, Auinger P, Lanphear BP. Exposures to environmental toxicants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in US children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006 Dec;114(12):1904-9.

Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, Cox C, Jusko TA, Lanphear BP. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003 Apr;348(16):1517-1526.

Carpenter DO, Arcaro K, Spink DC. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002;110(suppl 1):25-42.

Cheng Y, Schwartz J, Sparrow D, Aro A, Weiss ST, Hu H. Bone lead and blood lead levels in relation to baseline blood pressure and the prospective development of hypertension: the Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;153(2):164-71

Coon S, Stark A, Peterson E, Gloi A, Kortsha G, Pounds J, Chettle D, Gorell J. Whole-body lifetime occupational lead exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006 Dec;114(12):1872-6.

Denham M, Schell LM et al. Relationship of lead, mercury, mirex, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls to timing of menarche among Akwesasne Mohawk girls. Pediatrics. 2005 Feb;115(2):e127-34.

Goyer RA. Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract. The Medical Clinics of North America. 1990 Mar;74(2):377-89.

Holladay SD. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999 Oct;107 Suppl 5:687-91.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs. Accessed in 2010.

Kaerlev L, Teglbjaerg PS et al. Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: a European population-based case-control study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002 Jun;44(6):516-22.

Klaassen CD, Ed. Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill 2001.

LaDou J, Ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 3rd Edition. New York: Lange Medical/McGraw-Hill Company, 2004.

Leikin JB, Davis A, Klodd DA, Thunder T, Kelafant GA, Paquette DL, Rothe MJ, Rubin R. Selected topics related to occupational exposures. Part V. Occupational cardiovascular disease. Disease-a-Month. 2000 Apr;46(4):311-322.

Rom WM. Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 3rd Edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publishers, 1998.

NOTE: Not all the references are currently available, but they will be added as soon as possible. If you need a reference and are unable to find it, please contact us through our contact form