Post category: Radiation Environment
A New Chapter in A Story of Health!
Reiko and Toshio are a Japanese-American couple in their early 30s who met in college and later married. They have been trying to have a child for about a year and feel frustrated that Reiko is not yet pregnant. They are not alone—infertility is not uncommon.
Follow Reiko and Toshio as they explore what may be contributing to their infertility and their options for interventions. Their story is the newest chapter in A Story of Health multimedia eBook, available at no cost. This eBook uses videos, infographics and articles by experts to illustrate where and how we live, work, and play can influence reproductive health. Written for health care providers, prospective parents, health advocates, policy makers and others concerned about environmental influences on reproductive health, the story includes links to additional resources and scientific references on each page.
Health professionals can register for free continuing education credits (CE) through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with ATSDR hosting the CE accreditation pages.
The first installment of the eBook, with chapters on asthma, developmental disabilities and childhood leukemia, is also available to download for free, either in total or as individual chapters.
A Story of Health has been developed in a collaboration among the federal Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Center for Integrative Research on Childhood Leukemia and the Environment (CIRCLE) at the University of California, Berkeley, Collaborative on Health and the Environment (CHE), the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California EPA (OEHHA), the Science and Environmental Health Network (SEHN), and the Western States Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU).
New Webpage: Birth Defects
Our new webpage offers an overview of exposures, prevalence, prevention strategies, economic impacts and ethical issues regarding birth defects. Find out more by viewing our web page today!
We Are All Biologically Embedded
Given the grave concerns about scientific research and health-protective regulations being sidelined for political reasons in the US right now, I'm finding it hard to see the forest for the trees. Instead I feel I'm racing through a massive forest trying to protect one tree before it's cut down, only to find that the next 100 trees have already been decimated. I know I'm not alone in this. . . .
A Case Study: Tapping the Bioinitiative Website
This post will introduce our readers to the BioInitiative website, which makes publications on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RF) on health topics accessible. The information is set up to allow users to integrate the EMF and RF information on health into their own practices. I hope other CHE groups will begin to consider how EMF and RF studies, along with other important environmental contaminants, can shape our views on the etiologies of breast cancer, brain cancers, heart disease, neurological diseases, cognitive and neurodevelopmental problems like autism and ADHD, and the fundamental mechanisms involved.
The Bioinitiative provides broad information the science and public health consequences of EMF and wireless technologies. This website offers an opportunity for CHE members to access many hundreds of scientific abstracts on EMF and RF. The Research Summaries can be downloaded and word-searched by topic or keyword ("hippocampus", for example). The ability to quickly access scientific publications reporting effects (or no effects) is a vital part of research and education. This collection offers rapid access to decision-makers and the public on the state of the evidence for EMF and RF effects on human health. It can help researchers identify common pathways, mechanisms and biomarkers that may overlap with chemical and ionizing radiation, and studies of various disease endpoints (cancers, neurological diseases, neurodevelopmental problems and more).
A CHE ScienceServ that I follow recently included a post regarding a new study of hippocampal activation, increased amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline.Leal SL et al. Hippocampal activation is associated with longitudinal amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline. eLife. 2017. I was able to search the Bioinitiative website for studies on effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation on the hippocampus and found 44 studies reporting effects on the hippocampus from exposure to radiofrequency radiation, primarily in the cell phone and Wi-Fi frequency ranges. RF/microwave exposures are clearly biologically active in the hippocampus at exposure levels below current safety limits. Such exposures are reported to cause changes in development, structure and function of the hippocampus.
The studies I located provide readers a sense of the scope of information available on the Bioinitiative website:
- Lai et al, 1991: An increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 45-min sessions of microwave exposure, whereas a decrease in concentration was observed in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats exposed to ten 20-min sessions.Lai H, Carino MA, Wen YF, Horita A, Guy AW, Naltrexone pretreatment blocks microwave-induced changes in central cholinergic receptors. Bioelectromagnetics. 1991;12(1):27-33.
- Lai et al, 1992: The data showed that all three subtypes of opioid receptors are involved in the microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus.Lai H, Carino MA, Horita A, Guy AW. Opioid receptor subtypes that mediate a microwave-induced decrease in central cholinergic activity in the rat. Bioelectromagnetics. 1992;13(3):237-246.
- Grigor'ev et al, 1995: The reaction of hippocampus was displayed as amplification of theta-range in spectrum within of normal functioning.Grigor'ev IuG, Luk'ianova SN, Makarov VP, Rynskov VV, [Total bioelectric activity of various structures of the brain in low-intensity microwave irradiation]. Radiatsionnaia Biologiia, Radioecologiia. 1995 Jan-Feb;35(1):57-65. [Article in Russian]
- Lai et al, 1996: These data indicate that mu-opioid receptors in the septum mediate a microwave-induced decrease in cholinergic activity in the hippocampus and support our hypothesis that microwaves at a whole body SAR of 0.6 W/kg can activate endogenous opioids in the brain.Lai H, Carino MA, Horita A, Guy AW, Intraseptal microinjection of beta-funaltrexamine blocked a microwave-induced decrease of hippocampal cholinergic activity in the rat. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 1996 Mar;53(3):613-616.
- Pu et al, 1997: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the brain and the amounts of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were reduced significantly in the group irradiated at 3000-MHz microwave 1 h daily for 7 days as compared to the control.Pu, JS, Chen, J, Yang, YH, Bai, YQ, The effects of 3000 MHz microwave irradiation on electroencephalic energy and energy metabolism in mouse brain. Electro-and Magnetobiology. 1997;16:243-247.
- Ding et al, 1998: Decrease of nitric oxide synthase expression in hippocampus relates to the obstruction of learning and memory of the rat after exposure to electromagnetic pulse.Ding G, Xie X, Zhang L et al. Changes of nitric oxide synthase in hippocampus and cerebellum of the rat following exposure to electromagnetic pulse. Chinese Journal of Physical Medicine. 199820:81-83.
- Wu et al, 1999: Electromagnetic pulse exposure results in changes of the content of neurotransmitters in different cerebral areas of rats, lowering their ability of learning.Wu Y, Jia Y, Guo Y, Zheng Z. Influence of EMP on the nervous system of rats. ACTA Biophysica Sinica. 1999;15:152-157.
- Cobb et al, 2000: The medial-to-lateral length of the hippocampus was significantly longer in the ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields -exposed pups than in the sham-exposed animals.Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Mason PA, Dooley MP, Miller SA, Ziriax JM, Murphy MR. Neural and behavioral teratological evaluation of rats exposed to ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Oct;21(7):524-537.
- Tattersall et al, 2001: Low-intensity RF fields can modulate the excitability of hippocampal tissue in vitro in the absence of gross thermal effects.Tattersall JE, Scott IR, Wood SJ, Nettell JJ, Bevir MK, Wang Z, Somasiri NP, Chen X. Effects of low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on electrical activity in rat hippocampal slices. Brain Research. 2001 Jun;904(1):43-53.
- Testylier et al, 2002: Neurochemical modification of the hippocampal cholinergic system can be observed during and after an exposure for 1 h during the day to a 2.45 GHz continuous wave radiofrequency field (RF).Testylier G, Tonduli L, Malabiau R, Debouzy JC. Effects of exposure to low level radiofrequency fields on acetylcholine release in hippocampus of freely moving rats. Bioelectromagnetics. 2002 Apr;23:249-255.
- Salford et al, 2003: We found highly significant (p<0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of rats exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. Salford LG, Brun AR, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Jun;111:881-883.
- Paulraj & Behari, 2004: A significant decrease in the calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) enzyme level was observed in the modulated radio frequency (RF) radiation exposed group as compared to the sham exposed group.Paulraj R, Behari J. Radio frequency radiation effects on protein kinase C activity in rats' brain. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 2004 Jan;545(1-2):127-130.
- Koylu et al, 2006: The levels of lipid peroxidation in the brain cortex and hippocampus increased in the microwave-exposed (MW) group compared with the control group, although the levels in the hippocampus were decreased by MW+melatonin administration.Koylu H, Mollaoglu H, Ozguner F, Nazyroglu M, Delibab N. Melatonin modulates 900 Mhz microwave-induced lipid peroxidation changes in rat brain. Toxicology and Industrial Health. 2006 Jun; 22(5):211-216.
- Lopez-Martin et al, 2006: When rats transformed into an experimental model of seizure-proneness by acute subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin were exposed to 2 h GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiation at an intensity similar to that emitted by mobile phones, they suffered seizures and the levels of the neuronal activity marker c-Fos in neocortex, paleocortex, hippocampus and thalamus increased markedly.Lopez-Martin E, Relova-Quinteiro JL, Gallego-Gomez R, Peleteiro-Fernandez M, Jorge-Barreiro FJ, Ares-Pena FJ. GSM radiation triggers seizures and increases cerebral c-Fos positivity in rats pretreated with subconvulsive doses of picrotoxin. Neuroscience Letters. 2006 May;398(1-2):139-144.
- Paulraj & Behari, 2006: Our study reveals a statistically significant decrease in protein kinase C activity in hippocampus in the group exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation for 2 h/day for a period of 35 days as compared to the remaining portion of the whole brain and the control group. Paulraj R, Behari J. Protein kinase C activity in developing rat brain cells exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2006 Jun;25(1) 61-70.
- Zhao et al, 2006: Map2 was statistically significantly up-regulated after neurons were exposed to the RF EMF.Zhao R, Zhang SZ, Yao GD, Lu DQ, Jiang H, Xu ZP. [Effect of 1.8 GHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on the expression of microtubule associated protein 2 in rat neurons.] Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2006 May;24(4):222-225.
- Ammari et al, 2008: Our results indicated that chronic exposure to GSM 900 MHz microwaves may induce persistent astroglia activation in the rat brain (sign of a potential gliosis).Ammari M, Brillaud E, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H, de Seze R. Effect of a chronic GSM 900MHz exposure on glia in the rat brain. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2008 Apr-May;62(4):273-81.
- Nittby et al, 2008: Gene ontology analysis (using the gene ontology categories biological processes, molecular functions, and cell components) of the differentially expressed genes of the exposed animals versus the control group revealed the following highly significant altered gene categories in both cortex and hippocampus: extracellular region, signal transducer activity, intrinsic to membrane, and integral to membrane.Nittby H, Widegren B, Krogh M, Grafström G, Berlin H, Rehn G, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BRR, Salford L. Exposure to radiation from global system for mobile communications at 1,800 MHz significantly changes gene expression in rat hippocampus and cortex. Environmentalist 2008 Dec;28(4), 458-465.
- Odaci et al, 2008: Prenatal EMF exposure caused a decrease in the number of granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus rat brain.Odaci E, Bas O, Kaplan S. Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on the dentate gyrus of rats: a stereological and histopathological study. Brain Research. 2008 Oct;1238:224-229.
- Bas et al, 2009: Postnatal EMF exposure caused a significant decrease of the hippocampal pyramidal cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA) of the EMF group. Additionally, cell loss can be seen in the CA region of EMF group even at qualitative observation.Bas O, Odaci E, Kaplan S, Acer N, Ucok K, Colakoglu S. 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects qualitative and quantitative features of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the adult female rat. Brain Research. 2009 Apr; 1265:178-185.
- Daniels et al, 2009: We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels.Daniels WM, Pitout IL, Afullo TJ, Mabandla MV. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2009 Dec;24(4):629-641.
- Kesari & Behari, 2009: With chronic exposure to these radiations, PKC decreased significantly in whole brain and hippocampus and DNA double-strand break (head and tail length, intensity and tail migration) and showed a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase and superoxides dismutase activity in brain cells, whereas catalase activity shows significant increase in the exposed group of brain samples as compared with control.Kesari KK, Behari J. Fifty-gigahertz microwave exposure effect of radiations on rat brain. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 2009 Jul;158(1):126-139.
- Li et al, 2009: Microwave radiation can increase the expression of AQP4 in rat hippocampus.Li X, Hu XJ, Peng RY, Gao YB, Wang SM, Wang LF, Xu XP, Su ZT, Yang GS. [A aquaporin 4 expression and effects in rat hippocampus after microwave radiation.] Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27(9):534-538.
- Ammari et al, 2010: Sub-chronic exposures to a 900 MHz EMF signal for two months could adversely affect rat brain, including the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus (sign of a potential gliosis).Ammari M, Gamez C, Lecomte A, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H, De Seze R. GFAP expression in the rat brain following sub-chronic exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field signal. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2010 May;86(5):367-75.
- Maskey et al, 2010: Exposure for 1 month produced almost complete loss of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1 area.Maskey D, Kim M, Aryal B, Pradhan J, Choi IY, Park KS, Son T, Hong SY, Kim SB, Kim HG, Kim MJ. Effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation exposure on calcium binding proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain. Brain Research. 2010 Feb;1313:232-241.
- Narayanan et al, 2010: Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats.Narayanan SN, Kumar RS, Potu BK, Nayak S, Bhat PG, Mailankot M. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010 Jan;115(2):91-96.
- Carballo-Quintás et al, 2011: Ninety minutes after radiation high levels of c-fos expression were recorded in the neocortex and paleocortex along with low hippocampus activation in picrotoxin treated animals. Most brain areas, except the limbic cortical region, showed important increases in neuronal activation 24 h after picrotoxin and radiation.Carballo-Quintás M, Martínez-Silva I, Cadarso-Suárez C, Alvarez-Figueiras M, Ares-Pena FJ, López-Martín E. A study of neurotoxic biomarkers, c-fos and GFAP after acute exposure to GSM radiation at 900 MHz in the picrotoxin model of rat brains. NeuroToxicology. 2011 Aug;32(4):478-494.
- Dragicevic et al 2011: These results collectively suggest that brain mitochondrial enhancement may be a primary mechanism through which EMF treatment provides cognitive benefit to both transgenic and non-transgenic mice.Dragicevic N, Bradshaw PC, Mamcarz M, Lin X, Wang L, Cao C, Arendash GW. Long-term electromagnetic field treatment enhances brain mitochondrial function of both Alzheimer's transgenic mice and normal mice: a mechanism for electromagnetic field-induced cognitive benefit? Neuroscience. 2011 Jun;185:135-149.
- Fragopoulou et al, 2012: Comparative proteomics analysis revealed that long-term irradiation from two EMF sources—a typical mobile phone and a wireless DECT base (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications/Telephone)—altered significantly (p<0.05) the expression of 143 proteins in total (as low as 0.003-fold downregulation up to 114-fold overexpression).Fragopoulou AF, Samara A, Antonelou MH, Xanthopoulou A, Papadopoulou A, Vougas K, Koutsogiannopoulou E, Anastasiadou E, Stravopodis DJ, Tsangaris GT, Margaritis LH. Brain proteome response following whole body exposure of mice to mobile phone or wireless DECT base radiation. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2012 Jan;31(4):250-274, 2012.
- Lu et al, 2012: Our results indicate that glucose administration attenuates the spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density microwave (MW) exposure, and reduced hippocampal glucose uptake may be associated with cognitive impairment caused by MW exposure.Lu Y, Xu S, He M, Chen C, Zhang L, Liu C, Chu F, Yu Z, Zhou Z, Zhong M. Glucose administration attenuates spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density microwave exposure. Physiology & Behavior. 2012 Jul;106(5):631-637.
- Yang et al, 2012: Exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus.Yang XS, He GL, Hao YT, Xiao Y, Chen CH, Zhang GB, Yu ZP. Exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields elicits an HSP-related stress response in rat hippocampus. Brain Research Bulletin. 2012 Jul;88(4):371-378.
- Aboul Ezz et al, 2013: The exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) resulted in significant changes in dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in the four selected areas of adult rat brain, including the hippocampus and hypothalamus.Aboul Ezz HS, Khadrawy YA, Ahmed NA, Radwan NM, El Bakry MM. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in four different areas of rat brain. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences. 2013 Jul;17(13):1782-8.
- İkinci et al, 2013: The application of a 900 MHz EMF in the prenatal period adversely affected female pups' learning behavior and also resulted in histopathological changes appearing in the hippocampus.İkinci A, Odacı E, Yıldırım M, Kaya H, Akça M, Hancı H, Aslan A, Fikret Sönmez O, Baş O. The effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 megahertz electromagnetic field on hippocampus morphology and learning behavior in rat pups. NeuroQuantology. 2013 Dec;11(4):582-590.
- Ntzouni et al 2013: The data suggest that visual information processing mechanisms in hippocampus, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex are gradually malfunctioning upon long-term daily exposure to GSM 1.8 GHz signal for 90 min daily by a typical cellular (mobile) phone, a phenotype that persists for at least 2 weeks after interruption of radiation, returning to normal memory performance levels 4 weeks later.Ntzouni MP, Skouroliakou A, Kostomitsopoulos N, Margaritis LH. Transient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 2013 Jan;32(1);95-120.
- Tong et al, 2013: Electromagnetic radiation may cause structure and function changes of transfer synaptic in global, make hippocampal CA1 area neurons change in the overall discharge characteristic and discharge patterns, thus lead to decrease in the ability of learning and memory.Tong J, Chen S, Liu XM, Hao DM. [Effect of electromagnetic radiation on discharge activity of neurons in the hippocampus CA1 in rats]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2013;29(5):423-427.
- Wang et al, 2013: This study suggested that impairment of long-term potentiation induction and the damages of hippocampal structure, especially changes of synapses, might contribute to cognitive impairment after microwave exposure.Wang H, Peng R, Zhou H, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, Yong Z, Zuo H, Zhao L, Dong J, Xu X, Su Z. Impairment of long-term potentiation induction is essential for the disruption of spatial memory after microwave exposure. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2013 Dec;89(12):1100-7.
- Ghazizadeh & Nazıroğlu, 2014: Epilepsy and Wi-Fi in our experimental model is involved in Ca(2+) influx and oxidative stress-induced hippocampal and DRG death through activation of TRPV1 channels, and negative modulation of this channel activity by capsazepine pretreatment may account for the neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress.Ghazizadeh V, Nazıroğlu M. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2014 May;29(3):787-799.
- Li et al, 2014: The results suggested that in the long-term way, chronic microwave exposure could induce cognitive deficit and 5-HT system may be involved in it, as degeneration of hippocampal neurons was observed.Li H, Peng R, Wang C, Qiao S, Yong-Zou, Gao Y, Xu X, Wang S, Dong J, Zuo H, Li-Zhao, Zhou H, Wang L, Hu X. Alterations of cognitive function and 5-HT system in rats after long-term microwave exposure. Physiology & Behavior. 2014 Dec 24;pii: S0031-9384(14)00663-5.
- Saikhedkar et al, 2014: After exposure to 900 MHz radio waves by means of a mobile hand set for 4 hours per day for 15 days, increased production of reactive oxygen species due to exhaustion of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation indicate extensive neurodegeneration in selective areas of CA1, CA3, DG, and the cerebral cortex were evident. This extensive neuronal damage results in alterations in behavior related to memory and learning. Histological examination showed neurodegenerative cells in hippocampal sub regions and cerebral cortex.Saikhedkar N, Bhatnagar M, Jain A, Sukhwal P, Sharma C, Jaiswal N. Effects of mobile phone radiation (900 MHz radiofrequency) on structure and functions of rat brain. Neurological Research. 2014 Dec;36(12):1072-9.
- Megha et al, 2015: Results showed significant reduction in levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and 5-HT in hippocampus of microwave-exposed animals in comparison with sham-exposed (control) animals.Megha K, Deshmukh PS, Ravi AK, Tripathi AK, Abegaonkar MP, Banerjee BD. Effect of low-intensity microwave radiation on monoamine neurotransmitters and their key regulating enzymes in rat brain. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 2015 Feb 12;73(1)93–100.
- Şahin et al, 2015: Stereological analyses showed that the total number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF exposed rats was significantly lower than those in the control and the sham exposed groups.Şahin A, Aslan A, Baş O, İkinci A, Özyılmaz C, Fikret Sönmez O, Çolakoğlu S, Odacı E. Deleterious impacts of a 900MHz electromagnetic field on hippocampal pyramidal neurons of 8-week-old Sprague Dawley male rats. Brain Research. 2015 Oct;1624:232-8.
- Tang et al, 2015: Exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage blood brain barrier permeability which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation observed in the hippocampus and cortex in rats by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway.Tang J, Zhang Y, Yang L, Chen Q, Tan L, Zuo S, Feng H, Chen Z, Zhu G. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. Brain Research. 2015 Mar;1601:92-101.
- Wang et al, 2015: This study indicated that the content of amino acids neurotransmitters, the expression of NMDAR subunits and the variation of hippocampal structure might contribute to the long-term cognitive impairment after microwave exposure.Wang H, Peng R, Zhao L, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, Zuo H, Dong J, Xu X, Zhou H, Su Z. The relationship between NMDA receptors and microwave induced learning and memory impairment: a long term observation on Wistar rats. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 2015 Mar;91(3):262-9.
- Xiong et al, 2015: 30 mW/cm2 microwave exposure caused injury in rat hippocampal structure and PC12 cells, especially the structure and quantity of synapses, amino acid neurotransmitter release and calcium influx.Xiong L, Sun CF, Zhang J, Gao YB, Wang LF, Zuo HY, Wang SM, Zhou HM, Xu XP, Dong J, Yao BW, Zhao L, Peng RY. Microwave exposure impairs synaptic plasticity in the rat hippocampus and pc12 cells through over-activation of the NMDA receptor signaling pathway. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 2015 Jan;28(1):13-24.