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Prostate cancer

Causes [strength of evidence]:

Notes
# - Group 2A human carcinogen, ^ - Group 2B human carcinogen (IARC) (IARC), Polymorphisms of genes for enzymes NAT-1, CYP2D6*B, and GSTT1 have been weakly associated with increased risks of prostate ca. Pesticide exposure in applicators, manufacturers, and farmers has been associated with prostate ca. In these studies, the individual was exposed to mixtures of pesticides that are unidentifiable from study designs.

References:
  • Baker SR and Wilkinson CF, ed. The Effects of Pesticides on Human Health. Workshop Proceedings, Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology XVIII. May 9-11, 1998. Princeton Science Publishing, Princeton.
  • Dich J. and Wiklund K. Prostate Cancer in Pesticide Applicators in Swedish Agriculture. The Prostate 1998;34:100-112.
  • Fleming, L. et al. Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Licensed Pesticide Applicators in Florida. J Occup Environ Med. 1999; 41(4):279-288.
  • Giri,VN et al. Association between Agent Orange and prostate cancer: a pilot case-control study. Urology 2004; 63(4): 757-761.
  • Hayes, R.B. Gene-Environment Interrelations in Prostate Cancer. Epidemiol Rev 2001;23(1):163-167.
  • MacLennan, PA. et al. Cancer incidence among triazine herbicide manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Med 2002;44(11):1048-1058.
  • Parent, M-E and Siemiatycki, J. Occupation and Prostate Cancer. Epidemiologic Reviews 2001;23(1):138-144.
  • Prince, MM et al. Mortality and exposure response among 14,458 electrical capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Oct;114(10):1508-14.
  • Sanborn, MS. et al. Systematic Review of Pesticide Human Health Effects. Ontario College of Family Physicians. April, 2004. Available at: http://www.ocfp.on.ca/English/OCFP/Communications/Publications/default.asp?s=1
  • Schettler, T. Prostate Cancer. Peer-reviewed report for Collaborative on Health and the Environment. Website: http://www.protectingourhealth.org/newscience/prostate/2003-04peerreviewprostate.htm
  • Van Maele-Fabry, G. and Willems, J.L. Occupation related pesticide exposure and cancer of the prostate: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:634-642
  • Wartenberg D. et al. Trichloroethylene and Cancer: Epidemiologic Evidence. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108(Suppl 2):161-176.

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