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Altered sex ratio

Causes [strength of evidence]:

Notes
In families where fungicides were applied by the father, significantly fewer male children were born (44) An increase in male fetal death has been observed due to methyl mercury in Minamata, Japan in the 1950s.

References:
  • Bertazzi, P.A. et al. Health Effects of dioxin exposure: a 20-year mortality study. Am J Epidemiol 2001;153(11):1031-1044.
  • Carpenter D.O. et al. Understanding the Human Health Effects of Chemical Mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(suppl 1)25-42.
  • del Rio Gomez, I., Marshall, T., Tsai, P., Shao, Y. S., & Guo, Y. L. 2002. Number of boys born to men exposed to polychlorinated byphenyls. Lancet, 360(9327): 143-144.
  • Figa-Talamanca I. et al. Occupational Exposures to Metals, Solvents, and Pesticides: Recent Evidence on Male Reproductive Effects and Biological Markers. Occup Med 2001;51(3):174-188.
  • Garry V.F., et al. Birth Defects, Season of Conception, and Sex of Children Born to Pesticide Applicators Living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(suppl3):441-449.
  • Garry, V.F. et al. Male reproductive hormones and thyroid function in pesticide applicators in the Red River Valley of Minnesota. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2003 Jun 13;66(11):965-86.
  • Karmaus, W. et al. Parental concentration of dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene and polychlorinated biphenyls in Michigan fish eaters and sex ratio in offspring. J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Jan;44(1):8-13.
  • Ryan, J. J., Amirova, Z., & Carrier, G. 2002. Sex ratios of children of Russian pesticide producers exposed to dioxin. Environ Health Perspect, 110(11): A699-701.
  • Sanborn, MS. et al. Systematic Review of Pesticide Human Health Effects. Ontario College of Family Physicians. April, 2004. Available at: http://www.ocfp.on.ca/English/OCFP/Communications/Publications/default.asp?s=1
  • Vahter M. et al. Metals and Women's Health. Environ Research 2002; Section A, 88:145-155.

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